Since early November, political protests have been under way in Cambodia. The Cambodian government arrested opposition party and social activists, many of whom were convicted in a single day during “summary trials” and sentenced to a year in prison.
Myanmar has long been plagued by internal corruption and bribery. In April 2014 the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors approved $30 million from the International Development Association for Myanmar’s Modernization of Public Finance Management Project. The project aims to “support efficient, accountable and responsive delivery of public services through the modernization of Myanmar’s public financial management systems,” according to a release from the World Bank.
Transparency International Zimbabwe claimed the country was losing $55 million per day through corruption. That adds up to $10 billion over the past five years. In February 2014, Zimbabwe’s state-controlled newspapers exposed fraud and inflated salaries at government companies.
A small group of elites essentially controls Burundi’s economy. “The monopolization of public and private resources risks derailing the peace-building process based on developments and economic growth bolstered by efficient state machinery and driven by foreign investment,” according to the International Crisis group.
Four years of civil war in Syria have claimed more than 200,000 lives, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. In July, Reuters reported that GlaxoSmithKline was accused of paying bribes to secure business in Syria.
Angola saw a four-point drop from last year’s index. In 2004, Human Rights Watch found that the country’s government could not account for $4 billion spent between 1997 and 2002. The World Bank estimates that approximately 93% of Africa’s economically sustainable hydropower potential remains unexploited and that much of it is located in Angola.
Guinea-Bissau is known as Africa’s cocaine hub. The country is used as a passageway for drugs smuggled between Latin America and Europe.
Haiti has long history of corruption. Last year, more than 100 businessmen and local officials were arrested on corruption charges. In 2013, anti-corruption lawyer Andre Michel was arrested after he launched a case against the family of President Michel Martelly.
From February to June 2014, protests and political demonstrations overtook Venezuela. The protests were a result of the country’s violence, shortages of basic goods and rise in prices. As a result of the protests, thousands of people were arrested, hundreds injured, and more than 40 people died.
Corruption is hindering Yemen’s economy. In November, Yemen’s new government was sworn in, but rebels rejected the new cabinet and called to dismiss members they considered corrupt.
It is estimated that approximately 20% of Eritrea’s population is under conscription in the military, a significant force for corruption in the nation. The military has been accused of illegal spending and using funds for personal reasons.
Muammar al-Qaddafi, who ruled Libya for 42 years, was a major source of corruption, and the country is still feeling the repercussions from his time in power. Bribes are still a big problem in Libya. Transparency International has a list of the five biggest corruption scandals there.
Laws are in place to fight corruption in Uzbekistan, but they are hardly enforced. Corruption is a family affair, with the president’s daughter Gulnara Karimova at the center of controversy. Recently, Norwegian telecom company Telenor was reportedlyinvolved in a scandal with ties to Karimova.
Bribery is widespread in Turkmenistan. The country’s president can reportedly spend revenue from hydrocarbon sales as he wishes. No national budget has ever been published in full.
Iraq’s score has remained the same for the past two years. A survey completed by the U.N. Assistance Mission to Iraq found half of those questioned said corruption is on the rise and that the average Iraqi civil servant will pay at least four bribes per year.
Corruption in South Sudan stems from the country’s oil production. South Sudan produces approximately 500,000 barrels of oil per day, but it is reported that of the $10 billion collected in revenue, $4 billion is unaccounted for.
“Corruption is really the big issue,” John Sopko, the special inspector general for Afghanistan reconstruction said at the Middle East Institute in Washington, D.C., in May. The U.S. government has been criticized for ignoring anti-corruption efforts in its focus on security.
An anti-corruption agency was formed in 2012, but corruption still runs rampant in Sudan. Public servants often demand bribes to provide basic services. There is also a major lack in transparency from government officials.
Like last year, North Korea is the runner-up in the world corruption rankings. One of the world’s last remaining communist nations, North Korea suffers from food and basic good shortages, public sector bribery, a closed economy, and political malfeasance.
Somalia has held on to its status the most corrupt country in the world for the third year in a row. Somalia is often described as many states within a state. A U.N. report published last year found that Somalia had become a “slush fund,” and that withdrawals from government organizations were used for private purposes.